OSPF Prefix Filtering using Forwarding Address

This post is dedicated to one “esoteric” OSPF external route filtering method based on hiding OSPF Forwarding Address. Recall the meaning of OSPF FA. This is a special field used on OSPF type 5 and 7 LSAs to convey the information of the “external route source”. The purpose of FA is to optimize forwarding in situations where the external route source is connected to a shared segment. Here is an example:

In this scenario, R2 is the ASBR redistributing RIP into OSPF. At the same time, R1 does not perform redistribution. Per normal OSPF rules, the external prefixes appear “attached” to R2 and thus both R1 and R4 should route across R2 to get to the networks behind R3. In order to avoid this suboptimal routing, OSPF may insert a non-zero FA field into type-5 LSAs, containing the IP address of R3: This will instruct R1 and R4 to route to R3 directly, instead of going across R2.
Now an important thing here – the FA address must be accessible via the normal routing tables of R1 and R4. This requires the external link to be advertised into OSPF by some means, e.g. by enabling OSPF on the external link between R1, R2 and R3. Redistribution cannot be used for this purpose, as there are some restrictions. Here is a complete list of the requirements for enabling the OSPF FA in type 5 LSAs:
  • OSPF is enabled on the ASBR’s next hop interface AND
  • ASBR’s next hop interface is non-passive under OSPF AND
  • ASBR’s next hop interface is not point-to-point AND
  • ASBR’s next hop interface is not point-to-multipoint AND
  • ASBR’s next hop interface address falls under the network range specified in the router ospf command.
(You may find more information by reading the article on Cisco’s website named Common Routing Problems with OSPF Forwarding Address.
Notice the requirement for having the network type of “broadcast” or “non-broadcast” – this makes sense if you think that in real life you need to have a shared link with multiple “exit points”. However, you may forcefully configure a physically point-to-point link for the mentioned OSPF network types to enforce the effect of FA assignment.

Application to Filtering

Based on the requirement that FA needs to be reachable for the respective external routes to be considered, we may devise a filtering scheme for external routing information. More specifically, if there is a way to filter out the prefix corresponding to the FA, this will stop all routers that lost this information from using the external prefixes. There are two cases here.
  1. The FA prefix is filtered at the ASBR. Since OSPF must be enabled on the external link, the only option left is configuring a different area on the external link and using the inter-area route filter (area x filter-list) to block the prefix from propagating further.
  2. The FA prefix is filtered at the ABR(s) of the area containing the ASBR. You may use any of the methods described in the post OSPF Route Filtering Demystified to prevent type-3 LSA generation, e.g. use the inter-area route filtering.
Let’s see how this could be done in a practical scenario. Below is a diagram of a single-area OSPF implementation. R1 redistributes RIP routes into OSPF.
We enable OSPF area 0 on R1’s Frame-Relay interface (which uses the default non-broadcast OSPF network type) and apply inter-area route filtering:
router ospf 1
 area 168 filter-list prefix TO_AREA168 in
 redistribute rip subnets
 network area 0
 network area 168
ip prefix-list TO_AREA168 seq 5 deny
ip prefix-list TO_AREA168 seq 10 permit le 32
Now look at the OSPF database in SW2:
Rack1SW2#sh ip ospf database external 

            OSPF Router with ID ( (Process ID 1)

                Type-5 AS External Link States

  LS age: 505
  Options: (No TOS-capability, DC)
  LS Type: AS External Link
  Link State ID: (External Network Number )
  Advertising Router:
  LS Seq Number: 8000005B
  Checksum: 0xC8B4
  Length: 36
  Network Mask: /24
        Metric Type: 2 (Larger than any link state path)
        TOS: 0
        Metric: 20
        Forward Address:
        External Route Tag: 0
Now check if this route is present in the routing table. Also make sure the FA address is not in the routing table too:
Rack1SW2#sh ip route
% Subnet not in table

Rack1SW2#sh ip route
% Subnet not in table

Rack1SW2#show ip ospf database summary

            OSPF Router with ID ( (Process ID 1)
Now, remove the inter-are route filter in R1 and check SW2’s routing table once again.
Rack1R1(config-router)#no area 168 filter-list prefix TO_AREA168 in

Rack1SW2#sh ip route
Routing entry for
  Known via "ospf 1", distance 110, metric 65, type inter area
  Last update from on Vlan18, 00:00:16 ago
  Routing Descriptor Blocks:
  *, from, 00:00:16 ago, via Vlan18
      Route metric is 65, traffic share count is 1

Rack1SW2#sh ip route
Routing entry for
  Known via "ospf 1", distance 110, metric 20, type extern 2, forward metric 65
  Last update from on Vlan18, 00:00:16 ago
  Routing Descriptor Blocks:
  *, from, 00:00:16 ago, via Vlan18
      Route metric is 20, traffic share count is 1
Finally, a few words on type-7 LSAs. Per the NSSA area RFC, the use of FA is mandatory with these LSAs. The reason is that there is only one 7-to-5 translating ABR and this might result in suboptimal routing without the use of FA. This makes the use of the special conditions mentioned previously unnecessary. You may always use FA-based prefix filtering with the external information conveyed in type-5 LSAs translated from type-7 LSAs.


OSPF is a complicated protocol, which combines many features of distance-vector protocols with link-state behavior. Brought together, some of the features allow for sophisticated filtering techniques, not possible normally with pure link-state behavior. Using FA filtering is a good example of this phenomenon.


About US

Network Bulls is Best Institute for Cisco CCNA, CCNA Security, CCNA Voice, CCNP, CCNP Security, CCNP Voice, CCIP, CCIE RS, CCIE Security Version 4 and CCIE Voice Certification courses in India. Network Bulls is a complete Cisco Certification Training and Course Coaching Institute in Gurgaon/Delhi NCR region in India. Network Bulls has Biggest Cisco Training labs in India. Network Bulls offers all Cisco courses on Real Cisco Devices. Network Bulls has Biggest Team of CCIE Trainers in North India, with more than 90% of passing rate in First Attempt for CCIE Security Version 4 candidates.
  • Biggest Cisco Training Labs in India
  • More than 90% Passing Rate in First Attempt
  • CCIE Certified Trainers for All courses
  • 24x7 Lab Facility
  • 100% Job Guaranteed Courses
  • Awarded as Best Network Security Institute in 2011 by Times
  • Only Institute in India, to provide CCIE Security Version 4.0 Training
  • CCIE Security Version 4 Training available
  • Latest equipments available for CCIE Security Version 4

Network Bulls Institute Gurgaon

Network Bulls Institute in Gurgaon is one of the best Cisco Certifications Training Centers in India. Network Bulls has Biggest Networking Training and Networking courses labs in North India. Network Bulls is offering Cisco Training courses on real Cisco Routers and Switches. Labs of Network Bulls Institute are 24x7 Available. There are many coaching Centers in Delhi, Gurgaon, Chandigarh, Jaipur, Surat, Mumbai, Bangalore, Hyderabad and Chennai, who are offering Cisco courses, but very few institutes out of that big list are offering Cisco Networking Training on real Cisco devices, with Live Projects. Network Bulls is not just an institute. Network Bulls is a Networking and Network Security Training and consultancy company, which is offering Cisco certifications Training as well support too. NB is awarded in January 2012, by Times, as Best Network Security and Cisco Training Institute for the year 2011. Network Bulls is also offering Summer Training in Gurgaon and Delhi. Network Bulls has collaboration with IT companies, from which Network Bulls is offering Networking courses in Summer Training and Industrial Training of Btech BE BCA MCA students on real Live projects. Job Oriented Training and Industrial Training on Live projects is also offered by network bulls in Gurgaon and Delhi NCR region. Network Bulls is also providing Cisco Networking Trainings to Corporates of Delhi, Gurgaon, bangalore, Jaipur, Nigeria, Chandigarh, Mohali, Haryana, Punjab, Bhiwani, Ambala, Chennai, Hyderabad.
Cisco Certification Exams are also conducted by Network Bulls in its Gurgaon Branch.
Network Bulls don't provide any Cisco CCNA, CCNP simulations for practice. They Provide High End Trainings on Real topologies for high tech troubleshooting on real Networks. There is a list of Top and best Training Institutes in India, which are providing CCNA and CCNP courses, but NB has a different image from market. Many students has given me their feedbacks and reviews about Network bulls Institute, but there were no complaints about any fraud from this institute. Network Bulls is such a wonderful place to get trained from Industry expert Trainers, under guidance of CCIE Certified Engineers.

About Blog

This Blog Contains Links shared by sites: Cisco Guides, Dumps collection, Exam collection, Career Cert, Ketam Mehta, GodsComp.co.cc.


Cisco Networking Certifications Training

Cisco Training in Delhi

ccna training in gurgaon. ccnp course institute in gurgaon, ccie coaching and bootcamp training near gurgaon and delhi. best institute of ccna course in delhi gurgaon india. network bulls provides ccna,ccnp,ccsp,ccie course training in gurgaon, new delhi and india. ccsp training new delhi, ccie security bootcamp in delhi.

Testimonials : Network Bulls

My Name is Rohit Sharma and i Have done CCNA and CCNP Training in Gurgaon Center of Network Bulls and it was a great experience for me to study in Network Bulls.

Cisco Networking Certifications

Myself Komal Verma and i took CCSP Training from Network Bulls in Gurgaon. The day i joined Network Bulls, the day i get addicted with Networking Technologies and I thank Mr. Vikas Sheokand for this wonderful session of Networking. :)
I must say that Network Bulls is Best Institute of CCNA CCNP CCSP CCIE Course Training in Gurgaon, New Delhi and in India too.
Komal Verma

About a wonderfull CCIE Training Institute in Gurgaon

I am Kiran shah from New Delhi. I have recently completed my CCNA CCNP & CCIE Training in Gurgaon from Network Bulls and i recommend Network Bulls for Cisco Training in India.

Kiran Shah

Cisco Coaching and Learning Center

Disclaimer: This site does not store any files on its server. I only index and link to content provided by other sites. If you see any file on server that is against copy right you can inform me at (sidd12341 [at] gmail.com). I will delete that materials within two days. This Website is not official Website of any Institute like INE, Network Bulls, IP Expert. Thanks

CCIE Security Version 4

Cisco Finally updated CCIE Security Lab exam blueprint. WSA Ironport and ISE devices are added in CCIE Security Version 4 Lab Exam Syllabus Blueprint. In Updated CCIE Security Version 4 Syllabus blueprint, new technologies like Mobile Security, VoIP Security and IPV6 Security along with Network Security, are added. As in CCIE Security Version 3 blueprint, Cisco had focused on Network Security only, but now as per market demand, Cisco is looking forward to produce Internet gear Security Engineer, not only Network Security engineers.
In CCIE Security Version 4 Bluerpint, Lab Exam is going to be more interested than before. What is Difference in CCIE Security Version 3 and Version 4? Just go through the CCIE Security Version 4 Lab Equipment and Lab Exam Syllabus Blueprints and find out!